The basic components of an electric fence are something to electrify, insulators, posts, an electric fence charger, a ground rod and a ground clamp.
Something to electrify -
It is the wire that the pest animal touches and gets enough shock to avoid the fence again.
There are a variety of items available depending on your application and personal choice.
Steel & Aluminum Wire - There is a difference between the steel wire & aluminum wire. Aluminum wire has little or no resistance. This means you do not lose very much power from the distance (resistance) of the wire and it will not rust. Most electric fence applications use steel because it conducts very well and is more durable and cost effective.
Poly tape, Poly wire or Poly rope - This works great for fencing & is far more decorative than wire. It is a tape, wire or rope that has stainless steel wires woven into it so it has the same effect as the wire.
These are plastic pieces that attach to a variety of posts to insulate the hot wire, out & away from anything touching the ground that is a conductor. They come in forms for wood posts, chain link fences, White Vinyl Fencing, and standard 5/16” round posts. You can run one wire around the area you are trying to contain or put up another set of insulators at a different height and run another wire. Corner Insulators - allow you to make a square corner while running your electric fence wire. These are usually used for corners or gate handle loops.
This the is key piece of equipment in any electric fence. Chargers come in a variety of forms. You need to decide how you want to power your electric fence charger by using either 110V Standard A/C, Batteries, or Solar Energy. This usually depends on where your electric fence is. The most efficient are the 110V or Solar Electric Fence chargers due to the fact they maintain themselves. Battery electric fence chargers either need to be recharged or will need batteries replaced from time to time. The 12 volt powered electric fence chargers use a battery comparable to a 12 volt car or marine deep cycle battery.
Grounding Rod:The grounding rod is critical to the proper functioning of the electric fence. It is often a 2 foot long galvanized steel rod driven into the ground within 20' of the electric fence charger. The 2' is what we recommend for small applications such as gardens and pets etc., but not recommended for many miles of electric fence.